What about Privacy with Intelligence Agencies – 5 Eyes?

This is an overview by Wikipedia of the 5 Eyes surveillance.  My question as a citizen is what do we do when intelligence agencies target us for speaking up for democracy, equality before the law, honesty, justice and freedom from abuse?  What if there are military/corporate/government alliances?  Intelligence Agencies, it states below, operate outside of domestic laws then what can a Privacy Commissioner do?  Who protects innocent civilians being targeted for wanting a better world for their children?    What of the billions of people being surveilled, it is a major problem for civil society, particularly when viewed as the enemy.  How are they protected in reality?

I was surveilled for being a Fool for Peace.  Oh well.  https://wpas.worldpeacefull.com/2018/03/fbi-phone-surveillance-in-australia/

I felt to quickly write this as my heart searches for yours…




The eyes are the windows of the soul,

what does your soul see when you close your eyes,

can you see the window or the sill?

can you see the trees for the wood?

What ledge do you stand on …waiting?

Is it a leading edge or a ledge leading to the abyss?

how many eyes do you need to see …. in truth?

5 eyes
6 eyes
9 eyes
10 eyes …..etc.

What if you drop the disguise and open your eyes,

for it is fear that surveils for enemies,

FEAR is false evidence appearing real,

for what is REAL sustains,

what is false is not retained,

for only love is REAL time,

but who can find their way to love as the REAL mission that seems impossible?

Can you love your neighbour as yourself, the wise one asks?

Are you the neighbour that is wise? your enemy asks with HOPE,

what if there is no enemy but only unquestioned thoughts appearing real,

what if they (enemy) are you?

what if you (enemy) are they,

then what is to fear is a distorted mirror and the mask?

What if you are tasked to find your mask and allow it to drop for all to see?

ReaCtive responses become clear when they C first and become C reative,

What if on reflection you seek out the mirror and then C to look?

This is to C into the world book,

For when you look within you will truly C you do not need 5, 6, 9, 10 eyes to know,

for the deepest insight is:

To thine own self be true, and it must follow, as the night the day, thou canst not then be false to any man. (William Shakespeare),

this is the REAL round table that includes,

this is King Arthurs knight that follow day light,

For we need the light of good knights not secrets in service to self,

We need heroes prepared to serve humanity with the real intel (tell),

For we cannot save ourselves when left in the dark without light,

We need the light of truth to illuminate the path of humanity out of insanity,

For this is the raft that will usher in the greatest global security,

it comes in the purity of the heart absent of hate and suspicion,

It is the highest position that requires no title or assets,

Just a brave heart,

Perhaps the meek do inherit the earth?

Just in time.




Five Eyes

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Five Eyes
UKUSA Map.svg
Official languages English (de facto)
Type Intelligence alliance
Contributors  Australia
 New Zealand
 United Kingdom
 United States
14 August 1941
17 May 1943

The Five Eyes, often abbreviated as FVEY, is an anglophone intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries are parties to the multilateral UKUSA Agreement, a treaty for joint cooperation in signals intelligence.[1][2][3]

The origins of the FVEY can be traced back to the post–World War II period, when the Atlantic Charter was issued by the Allies to lay out their goals for a post-war world. During the course of the Cold War, the ECHELON surveillance system was initially developed by the FVEY to monitor the communications of the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, although it is now used to monitor billions of private communications worldwide.[4][5]

In the late 1990s, the existence of ECHELON was disclosed to the public, triggering a major debate in the European Parliament and, to a lesser extent, the United States Congress. As part of efforts in the ongoing War on Terror since 2001, the FVEY further expanded their surveillance capabilities, with much emphasis placed on monitoring the World Wide Web. The former NSA contractor Edward Snowden described the Five Eyes as a “supra-national intelligence organisation that does not answer to the known laws of its own countries”.[6] Documents leaked by Snowden in 2013 revealed that the FVEY have been spying on one another’s citizens and sharing the collected information with each other in order to circumvent restrictive domestic regulations on surveillance of citizens.[7][8][9][10]

In spite of continued controversy over its methods, the Five Eyes relationship remains one of the most comprehensive known espionage alliances in history.[11]

NSA Headquarters, Fort Meade, Maryland, United States

GCHQ, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

CSE, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Since processed intelligence is gathered from multiple sources, the intelligence shared is not restricted to signals intelligence (SIGINT) and often involves defence intelligence as well as human intelligence (HUMINT) and geospatial intelligence (GEOINT). The following table provides an overview of most of the FVEY agencies involved in such forms of data sharing.[1]

Country Agency Abbr Role[1]
 Australia Australian Secret Intelligence Service ASIS Human intelligence
Australian Signals Directorate ASD Signal intelligence
Australian Security Intelligence Organisation ASIO Security intelligence
Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation AGO Geo intelligence
Defence Intelligence Organisation DIO Defence intelligence
 Canada Canadian Forces Intelligence Command CFINTCOM Defence intelligence, Geo Intelligence
Communications Security Establishment CSE Signal intelligence
Canadian Security Intelligence Service CSIS Human intelligence, Security intelligence
 New Zealand Directorate of Defence Intelligence and Security DDIS Defence intelligence
Government Communications Security Bureau GCSB Signal intelligence
New Zealand Security Intelligence Service NZSIS Human intelligence
 United Kingdom Defence Intelligence DI Defence intelligence
Government Communications Headquarters GCHQ Signal intelligence
Security Service MI5 Security intelligence
Secret Intelligence Service MI6, SIS Human intelligence
 United States Central Intelligence Agency CIA Human intelligence
Defense Intelligence Agency DIA Defense intelligence
Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Security intelligence
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency NGA Geo intelligence
National Security Agency NSA Signal intelligence


Origins (1940s–1950s)[edit]

The cover page of the first version of the secret UKUSA Agreement in 1946, which was disclosed to the public in 2011.

The origins of the Five Eyes alliance can be traced back to the Atlantic Charter, which was issued in August 1941 to lay out the Allied goals for the post-war world. On 17 May 1943, the British–U.S. Communication Intelligence Agreement, also known as the BRUSA Agreement, was signed by the UK and U.S. governments to facilitate co-operation between the U.S. War Department and the British Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS). On 5 March 1946, the secret treaty was formalized as the UKUSA Agreement, which forms the basis for all signal intelligence cooperation between the NSA and the GCHQ to this day.[12][13]

In 1948, the treaty was extended to include Canada, followed by Norway (1952), Denmark (1954), West Germany (1955), Australia (1956), and New Zealand (1956).[13] These countries participated in the alliance as “third parties”. By 1955, the formal status of the remaining Five Eyes countries was officially acknowledged in a newer version of the UKUSA Agreement that contained the following statement:

At this time only Canada, Australia and New Zealand will be regarded as UKUSA-collaborating Commonwealth countries.[13]

The “Five Eyes” term has its origins as a shorthand for a “AUS/CAN/NZ/UK/US EYES ONLY” (AUSCANNZUKUS) classification level.[14]

Cold War (1950s–1990s)[edit]

During the Cold War, the GCHQ and the NSA shared intelligence on the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, and several eastern European countries (known as Exotics).[15] Over the course of several decades, the ECHELON surveillance network was developed to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies.[16]

During the Vietnam War, Australian and New Zealand operators in the Asia-Pacific region worked directly to support the United States, while GCHQ operators stationed in the (then) British colony of Hong Kong were tasked with monitoring North Vietnamese air defence networks.[17][18] During the Falklands War, the British received intelligence data from its FVEY allies such as Australia, as well as from third parties such as Norway and France.[19][20][21] In the aftermath of the Gulf War, a technician of the ASIS was used by SIS to bug Kuwaiti government offices.[20]

In the 1950s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Iran’s Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh.[22][23][24][25] In the 1960s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the assassination of the Congolese independence leader Patrice Lumumba.[26][27][28] In the 1970s, the ASIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Chile’s President Salvador Allende.[29][30][31][32] During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, SIS and the CIA took part in Operation Yellowbird to rescue dissidents from the Chinese regime.[33]

ECHELON network disclosures (1988–2000)[edit]

By the end of the 20th century, the ECHELON surveillance network had evolved into a global system capable of sweeping up massive amounts of private and commercial communications, including telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other data traffic. This was done through the interception of communication bearers such as satellite transmission and public switched telephone networks.[34]

The Five Eyes has two types of information collection methods: the PRISM program and the Upstream collection system. The PRISM program gathers user information from technology firms such as Google, Apple and Microsoft, while the Upstream system gathers information directly from the communications of civilians via fiber cables and infrastructure as data flows past.[citation needed] In 1988, Duncan Campbell revealed in the New Statesman the existence of ECHELON, an extension of the UKUSA Agreement on global signals intelligence [Sigint]. The story, ‘Somebody’s listening,’ detailed how the eavesdropping operations were not only being employed in the interests of ‘national security,’ but were regularly abused for corporate espionage in the service of US business interests. The piece passed largely unnoticed outside of journalism circles.[35] In 1996, a detailed description of ECHELON was provided by New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager in a book titled “Secret Power – New Zealand’s Role in the International Spy Network“, which was cited by the European Parliament in a 1998 report titled “An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control” (PE 168.184).[36] On 16 March 2000, the Parliament called for a resolution on the Five Eyes and their ECHELON surveillance network, which, if passed, would have called for the “complete dismantling of ECHELON”.[37]

Three months later, the Temporary Committee on ECHELON was set up by the European Parliament to investigate the ECHELON surveillance network. However, according to a number of European politicians such as Esko Seppänen of Finland, these investigations were hindered by the European Commission.[38]

In the United States, congressional legislators warned that the ECHELON system could be used to monitor U.S. citizens.[39] On 14 May 2001, the U.S. government cancelled all meetings with the Temporary Committee on ECHELON.[40]

According to a BBC report in May 2001, “the US Government still refuses to admit that Echelon even exists.”[16]

War on Terror (2001–present)[edit]

In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the surveillance capabilities of the Five Eyes were greatly increased as part of the global War on Terror.

During the run-up to the Iraq War, the communications of UN weapons inspector Hans Blix were monitored by the Five Eyes.[41][42] The office of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan was bugged by British agents.[43][44] An NSA memo detailed plans of the Five Eyes to boost eavesdropping on UN delegations of six countries as part of a “dirty tricks” campaign to apply pressure on these six countries to vote in favour of using force against Iraq.[43][45][46]

SIS and the CIA forged a surveillance partnership with Libya’s ruler Muammar Gaddafi to spy on Libyan dissidents in the West, in exchange for permission to use Libya as a base for extraordinary renditions.[47][48][49][50][51]

As of 2010[update], the Five Eyes also have access to SIPRNet, the U.S. government’s classified version of the Internet.[52]

In 2013, documents leaked by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden revealed the existence of numerous surveillance programs jointly operated by the Five Eyes. The following list includes several notable examples reported in the media:

  • PRISM – Operated by the NSA together with the GCHQ and the ASD[53][54]
  • XKeyscore – Operated by the NSA with contributions from the ASD and the GCSB[55]
  • Tempora – Operated by the GCHQ with contributions from the NSA[56][57]
  • MUSCULAR – Operated by the GCHQ and the NSA[58]
  • STATEROOM – Operated by the ASD, CIA, CSE, GCHQ, and NSA[59]

In March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ordered Australia to stop spying on East Timor. This marks the first time that such restrictions are imposed on a member of the FVEY.[60]

Domestic espionage sharing controversy[edit]

The Five Eyes alliance is sort of an artifact of the post World War II era where the Anglophone countries are the major powers banded together to sort of co-operate and share the costs of intelligence gathering infrastructure. … The result of this was over decades and decades some sort of a supra-national intelligence organisation that doesn’t answer to the laws of its own countries.

Edward Snowden[6]

In recent years, documents of the FVEY have shown that they are intentionally spying on one another’s citizens and sharing the collected information with each other in order to circumvent restrictive domestic regulations on spying. [7][8][9][10][61] Shami Chakrabarti, the director of the advocacy group Liberty, claimed that the FVEY alliance increases the ability of member states to “subcontract their dirty work” to each other.[62] The former NSA contractor Edward Snowden described the FVEY as a “supra-national intelligence organisation that doesn’t answer to the laws of its own countries”.[6]

As a result of Snowden’s disclosures, the FVEY alliance has become the subject of a growing amount of controversy in parts of the world:

  •  Canada: In late 2013, Canadian federal judge Richard Mosley strongly rebuked the CSIS for outsourcing its surveillance of Canadians to overseas partner agencies. A 51-page court ruling asserts that the CSIS and other Canadian federal agencies have been illegally enlisting FVEY allies in global surveillance dragnets, while keeping domestic federal courts in the dark.[63][64][65]
  •  New Zealand: In 2014, the NZSIS and the GCSB of New Zealand were asked by the New Zealand Parliament to clarify if they had received any monetary contributions from members of the FVEY alliance. Both agencies withheld relevant information and refused to disclose any possible monetary contributions from the FVEY.[66] David Cunliffe, leader of the Labour Party, asserted that the public is entitled to be informed.[66]
  •  European Union: In early 2014, the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs released a draft report which confirmed that the intelligence agencies of New Zealand and Canada have cooperated with the NSA under the Five Eyes programme and may have been actively sharing the personal data of EU citizens.[67][68]

Other international cooperatives[edit]

Since the addition of two members in 1956, the specific Five Eyes consist of Australia (accepted 1956), Canada (accepted 1948), New Zealand (accepted 1956), the United Kingdom (co-creator 1946), and the United States (co-creator 1946).[69][70] Further, there is a group of nations termed ‘3rd Party Partners’, which share their intelligence with the 5 Eyes.

While the Five Eyes is a very specific agreement with specific operations amongst the five nations, other non-FVEY sharing agreements have been set up independently and for specific purposes. For example, according to Edward Snowden, the NSA has a “massive body” called the Foreign Affairs Directorate that is responsible for partnering with foreign countries.[71]

Six Eyes

According to the news magazine L’Obs, in 2009, the United States proposed to France to join the Five Eyes, that would then have become the “Six Eyes”. Nicolas Sarkozy however made the requirement to be granted the same status as other allies, including the signing of a “no-spy agreement”. This requirement was approved by the director of the NSA, but not by the director of the CIA, and furthermore not by President Barack Obama, resulting in a refusal from France.[72]

In 2013 it was reported that Germany was interested in joining the Five Eyes alliance.[73][74] At that time, several members of the United States Congress, including Tim Ryan and Charles Dent, were pushing for Germany’s entrance to the Five Eyes alliance.[75]

Israel is, reportedly, an observer in Five Eyes.[76]

Singapore is reported to have partnered with the Five Eyes.[77]

Japan is, reportedly, collaborating with Five Eyes.[78]

Eight Eyes (Five Eyes Plus Three)

Five Eyes and, reportedly, three nations, Japan, Germany and France, built a coalition sharing information in early 2018 to counter fears including cyberattacks from China. [79] [80]

Nine Eyes

A map of the Nine Eyes countries

The Nine Eyes is a different arrangement that consists of the same members of Five Eyes working with Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Norway.[69][70]

Fourteen Eyes

A map of the Fourteen Eyes countries

According to a document leaked by Edward Snowden, there is another working agreement amongst 14 nations officially known as SIGINT Seniors Europe, or “SSEUR“.[81] These “14 Eyes” consist of the same members of Nine Eyes plus Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden.[69][70]

Further intelligence sharing collaborations

As spelled out by Privacy International, there are a number of issue-specific intelligence agreements that include some or all the above nations and numerous others, such as:[82][83]

  • An area specific sharing amongst the 41 nations that formed the allied coalition in Afghanistan;
  • A shared effort of the Five Eyes nations in “focused cooperation” on computer network exploitation with Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey;
  • Club of Berne: 17 members including primarily European States; the US is not a member;
  • The Counterterrorist Group: a wider membership than the 17 European States that make up the Club of Berne, and includes the US;
  • NATO Special Committee: made up of the heads of the security services of NATO‘s 28 member countries;

List of FVEY surveillance targets[edit]

Notable individuals[edit]

As the surveillance capabilities of the FVEY continue to increase to keep up to pace with technological advancements, a global surveillance system has been gradually developed to capture the communications of entire populations across national borders.[84] The following list contains a handful of targets of the FVEY who are public figures in various fields. In order for a person to be included in the list, there must be well-documented evidence based on reliable sources, such as leaked or declassified documents or whistleblower accounts, which demonstrate that the person involved is, or was, intentionally targeted for FVEY surveillance.

Picture Name Lifetime Surveillance agencies Notes Ref.
Charlie Chaplin portrait.jpg Charlie Chaplin 1889–1977
  • MI5
  • FBI
A British comedian, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the silent era, Charlie Chaplin became one of the most important figures in the film industry through his screen persona “the Tramp“. Due to his alleged ties to communism, he was placed under surveillance in the early 1950s by MI5 agents, who acted on behalf of the FBI as part of a campaign to banish him from the United States. [85][86][87]
Strom Thurmond.jpg Strom Thurmond 1902–2003
  • Various
A Dixiecrat candidate in the 1948 U.S. presidential election, Strom Thurmond represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 until 2003, when he became 100 years old and was recognized at that time as the longest-serving senator in U.S. history. In 1988, Margaret Newsham, a Lockheed employee, told a closed-door session of the United States Congress that Thurmond’s telephone calls were being intercepted by the FVEY via their ECHELON surveillance system. [88][89][90]
Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit).jpg Nelson Mandela 1918–2013
  • CIA
  • SIS
A South African activist, lawyer, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, Nelson Mandela was denounced as a terrorist by critics and was placed under surveillance by British SIS agents. In 1962, Mandela was arrested after details of his terrorist activities were picked up by the CIA and handed over to local authorities. [91][92][93][94]
Jane Fonda Cannes nineties.jpg Jane Fonda 1937–
  • GCHQ
  • NSA
An American actress, writer, political activist and former fashion model. Due to her political activism, her communications as well as those of her husband, Tom Hayden, were intercepted by the GCHQ and handed over to the NSA. [95][96]
Seyyed Ali Khamenei.jpg Ali Khamenei 1939–
  • GCHQ
  • NSA
A Shia cleric and a former President of Iran, Ali Khamenei is the current Supreme Leader of Iran. During a rare visit to Iranian Kurdistan in 2009, he and his entourage were targeted for surveillance under a high-tech espionage mission involving the analysis and processing of satellite imagery. The operation was jointly conducted by the GCHQ and the NSA. [97]
JohnLennonpeace.jpg John Lennon 1940–1980
  • FBI
  • MI5
A British musician, songwriter, and a lead singer of The Beatles, John Lennon engaged in anti-war activism through several iconic songs such as “Give Peace a Chance” and “Happy Xmas (War Is Over)“. In 1971, he moved to New York City to join activists in the United States to protest against the Vietnam War. Over the next 12 months, the U.S. government launched an extensive surveillance operation to monitor his activities and to deport him back to Britain. The operation was conducted by the FBI with the help of MI5. [98][99][100][101]
Olmert.jpg Ehud Olmert 1949–
  • GCHQ
  • NSA
An Israeli politician, lawyer, and a former Mayor of Jerusalem, Ehud Olmert is the 12th Prime Minister of Israel. He and the Israeli Minister of Defense, Ehud Barak, were included in a list of surveillance targets used by the GCHQ and the NSA. [102]
SusiloBambangYudhoyono.jpg Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 1949–
  • ASD
  • NSA
A former chief military observer of the United Nation Peacekeeping Force in Bosnia and the former President of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and his wife were placed under surveillance by the ASD, which shared details of the operation with the NSA. [103][104][105]
Angela Merkel (August 2012) cropped.jpg Angela Merkel 1954–
  • Various
A German politician, former research scientist, and the Chancellor of Germany since 2005, Angela Merkel’s phone communications were monitored by the Special Collection Service, which is part of the STATEROOM surveillance program of the FVEY. [106][107][108]
Diana, Princess of Wales.jpg Diana, Princess of Wales 1961–1997
  • GCHQ
  • NSA
A firm opponent of the international usage of land mines, the Princess of Wales was placed under surveillance by the GCHQ and the NSA, which kept a top secret file on her containing more than 1,000 pages. The contents of Diana’s NSA file have not been disclosed because of national security concerns. [109][110][111]
Kim Schmitz cropped and edited.jpg Kim Dotcom 1974–
  • FBI
  • GCSB
A German-Finnish Internet entrepreneur, businessman, and hacktivist, Kim Dotcom (born Kim Schmitz) is the founder of the file hosting service Megaupload. On behalf of the FBI, the GCSB of New Zealand conducted illegal surveillance on Dotcom. Prime Minister John Key later issued an apology for the GCSB’s illegal surveillance. [112][113][114][115]

Notable organisations[edit]

Broadcasting networks
Financial institutions
Multinational corporations
Oil corporations
Search engines
Telecom operators
United Nations

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c Cox, James (December 2012). “Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community” (PDF). Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute.


  2. ^ “Five Eyes”. United States Army Combined Arms Center. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  3. ^ “PKI Interoperability with FVEY Partner Nations on the NIPRNet”. United States Department of the Navy. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  4. ^ Asser, Martin (6 July 2000). “Echelon: Big brother without a cause?”. BBC. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  5. ^ “Q&A: What you need to know about Echelon”. BBC News. 29 May 2001. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Snowden-Interview: Transcript”. Norddeutscher Rundfunk. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b Ball, James (20 November 2013). “US and UK struck secret deal to allow NSA to ‘unmask’ Britons’ personal data”. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b MacAskill, Ewen (2 December 2013). “Revealed: Australian spy agency offered to share data about ordinary citizens”. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b Watt, Nicholas (10 June 2013). “NSA ‘offers intelligence to British counterparts to skirt UK law. The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b British spy agency taps cables, shares with U.S. NSA – Guardian, Reuters, 21 June 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  11. ^ Perry, Nick (16 July 2013). “Experts say US spy alliance will survive Snowden”. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
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  13. ^ Jump up to: a b c Norton-Taylor, Richard (25 June 2010). “Not so secret: deal at the heart of UK-US intelligence”. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  14. ^ Cox, James (December 2012). “Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community” (PDF). Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-04.
  15. ^ Aldrich, Richard (24 June 2010). “Allied code-breakers co-operate – but not always”. The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b “Q&A: What you need to know about Echelon”. BBC. 29 May 2001.
  17. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard (19 June 2010). “GCHQ by Richard Aldrich, Securing the State by David Omand”. The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January 2014. The US was especially keen on GCHQ’s station in Hong Kong, particularly during the Vietnam war
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  19. ^ Jones, George (13 Mar 2002). “How France helped us win Falklands war”. The Daily Telegraph.
  20. ^ Jump up to: a b Milliken, Robert (23 February 1994). “Canberra spy link to MI6 alleged”. The Independent.
  21. ^ “Norsk lyttestasjon viktig brikke i Falklandskrigen” (in Norwegian). Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 May 2002. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009.
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  25. ^ Merica, Dan (20 August 2013). “In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in ’53 Iran coup”. CNN. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  26. ^ Corera, Gordon (2 April 2013). “MI6 and the death of Patrice Lumumba”. BBC. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  27. ^ DeYoung, Karen; Walter Pincus (27 June 2007). “CIA Releases Files On Past Misdeeds”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 February 2014. A one-paragraph memo recounts planning for a “project involving the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, then premier of the Republic of Congo.
  28. ^ “CIA details Cold War skulduggery”. BBC. 26 June 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  29. ^ McDonald, Hamish (12 December 2006). “Canberra’s furtive aid in overthrowing Allende”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  30. ^ Suich, Max (20 March 2010). “Spymaster stirs spectre of covert foreign activities”. The Australian. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  31. ^ Herbert, David. “Questions over Australian involvement in Chile coup”. Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  32. ^ “The Other 9/11”. Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  33. ^ Anderlini, Jamil (1 June 2014). “Tiananmen Square: the long shadow”. Financial Times. Retrieved 2 June 2014. The extraction missions, aided by MI6, the UK’s Secret Intelligence Service, and the CIA, according to many accounts, had scrambler devices, infrared signallers, night-vision goggles and weapons.
  34. ^ Schmid, Gerhard (11 July 2001). “On the existence of a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications (ECHELON interception system), (2001/2098(INI))” (pdf – 194 pages). European Parliament: Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
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  41. ^ Kim Sengupta; Kathy Marks (Feb 29, 2004). “Blix secrets shared with NZ – reports”. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
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  43. ^ Jump up to: a b “UK bugged Annan’s office, says former minister”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 February 2004. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  44. ^ “UK ‘spied on UN’s Kofi Annan. BBC. February 2004.
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Mohandas Gandhi

“You must be the change you wish to see in the world.”